Modularity of mind is the concept discussing whether specific modules in the mind work independently, or the mind is not organized in a modular way and it is an integrated whole. Since this concept is an unresolved issue, there is no one true answer to our question. However, I am going to argue for the modularity of the mind and use studies like Williams Syndrome, Stroop Effect and Pisoni and Martin’s intoxication study as supporter evidences and aphasic patients as a counter argument to discuss whether contradictory evidences can be reconciled or there is a stronger view. This essay will be relating to Fodor`s criteria of Informational Encapsulation, Obligatory Firing, and the Fixed Neural Architecture.Continue reading “Is There a Language Module in the Mind?”
Knowing a language is an ability to perform linguistic functions. Humans and animals use language as a communicative skill throughout their lives. There are some drastic differences between the human`s way of communication and the animal`s way of communication. For instance, human language is based on words. Whereas, animal communication is based on screams, gestures and calls. Besides, what triggers humans’ need of speaking is simply the need for communication. Whereas, what triggers the animals’ need of communication is their hunger and fear. I am going to argue against that animals have the ability to learn human language by examining some cases such as monkeys, dogs and chimps.Continue reading “Can Animals Learn a Human Language?”
In this essay I discuss whether human language is an instinctual behaviour or a learning behaviour by considering Eric Lenneberg’s criteria for instinctual behaviours (1967). This has been argued for years and although some follow Skinner`s theory of language acquisition as a learning behaviour, there are still people who consider language as an innate ability, and those people follow Noam Chomsky`s theory of language as an instinctual behaviour. After a deep consideration of Eric Lenneberg’s criteria and Noam Chomsky`s theory of instinctual behaviours, I suggest that humans have an innate ability corresponding with learning a language.Continue reading “Is Human Language an Instinctual Behaviour?”
Before it was transformed into a religious subject by Christianity, contact with supernatural beings was a cultural motif that was very common in folk tales in which humans interact with mystical beings, and those occasions often transpire in certain spiritually dense places such as crossroads and bridges. However, Christian culture’s approach to that subject had been more didactic and allegorical along with numbers of use; therefore, in time, contact with supernatural beings turned into a popular Christian folktale motif. The oldest known story of pact with the devil is the Legend of Theophilus of Adana which sets out the unchanging outline for the future works of this particular motif in Christian mythology. A person who confronts with a serious problem finds it nearly inconceivable to deal with, unless there is a superhuman power; therefore, he/she seeks out some sort of a supernatural intervention which is of course, rather than being a divine help, a diabolic power. The devil or his evil companions never fails to deliver service for the sake of a soul since soul is the only payment that is not substitutable. Yet, the endings always involve a feeling of regret which, as the religious motive manifests itself, leads to either repentance to reach salvation or obedience to the contract even if it ends up with damnation. Geoffrey Chaucer’s perspective in his “The Friar’s Tale” (which is a story in The Canterbury Tales) incorporates the old folktale tradition and the rather new Christian version of the motif. In “The Friar’s Tale,” the Summoner runs across with a Yeoman, who shares the same evil purpose with the Summoner, and they soon pledge their brotherhood but the Yeoman turns out to be a demon that at the end captures the Summoner’s body and soul. Being the most famous example and the embodiment of pact with the devil motif, Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus has inspired many artistic works of different cultures  through its unprecedented success in characterization. The soliloquies of Faustus inaugurated more broad perspectives upon the inner worlds of those who make pact with the devil.
Giuseppe Tartini was an Italian Baroque composer, violinist, and a musical theorist who is best known with his Devil’s Trill Sonata. Among his many works, Devil’s Trill Sonata is the most fascinating one in terms of its story and musical technicality. His inspiration for the sonata is known as the pact he made with the devil in his dream. He composed the sonata with double stop technique, which means playing two notes simultaneously, and wrote it in four movements in which he makes you experience different emotions in different paces as if you become a part of his dream and feel his exhilaration. According to Jérôme de Lalande who was a French astronomer and a friend of Tartini, Tartini told his dream as follows.
“One night I dreamt that I had made a bargain with the Devil for my soul. Everything went at my command—my novel servant anticipated every one of my wishes. Then the idea struck me to hand him my fiddle and to see what he could do with it. But how great was my astonishment when I heard him play with consummate skill a sonata of such exquisite beauty as surpassed the boldest flight of my imagination. I felt enraptured, transported, enchanted; my breath was taken away; and I awoke. Seizing my violin I tried to retain the sounds that I had heard. But it was in vain. The piece I then composed, the Devil’s Sonata, although the best I ever wrote, how far below the one I heard in my dream!”
Apparently, whether it is the case of being friends with the Devil or making a bargain with him, the Devil had done an utterly perfect job by this sonata! Every second of consuming this sonata, you share the same calmness of Tartini’s slumber whilst dancing and jumping all the way through with him in his sublime dream.
Holman, Peter. “Sonata in G Minor ‘Il Trillo Del Diavolo’, Bg5.” Hyperion Records. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 June 2016. <http://www.hyperion-records.co.uk/dw.asp?dc=W9581_202922>.
With its natural, historical and architectural features Hasankeyf is very different from the many ruins in Anatolia, for example, the Eastern Roman ruins. As Archaeological News said, it is a unique settlement. However, the structures in Hasankeyf are not durable enough to overcome the flooding. Hasankeyf, which hosted ancient civilizations, is anxiously waiting for a flood…Continue reading “City of Rocks, castles, bridges, minarets: Hasankeyf”